Groupthink has been used over the years to help understand group dynamics and why certain groups are successful and others lead to disaster a considerable amount of social science literature shows that in circumstances of extreme crisis, group contagion occasionally gives rise to collective panic, violent acts of scapegoating, and other forms of what could be called group madness. Abstract janis's groupthink theory is an appealing explanation of how group process can get in the way of optimal decision making unfortunately, janis was selective and not always consistent in his application of research in group dynamics. This article is adapted from the author's recent book, victims of groupthink: a psychological study of foreign-policy decisions and fiascoes (houghton-mifflin. Groupthink is a term coined by irving janis in 1971 to describe a premature concurrence-seeking tendency that interferes with collective decision-making processes and leads to poor decisions.
Groupthink is a phenomenon that occurs when the desire for group consensus overrides people's common sense desire to present alternatives, critique a position, or express an unpopular opinion here, the desire for group cohesion effectively drives out good decision-making and problem solving. Groupthink is a term coined by psychologist irving janis in 1972 to describe a process by which a group can make bad or irrational decisions in a groupthink situation, each member of the group attempts to conform his or her opinions to what they believe to be the consensus of the group. Effect of group dynamics on decision outcomes3 groupthink has become a widely studied and utilized theory in social psychology, organizational theory, political science, management fields, and group decision-making literature. Beyond groupthink builds upon and extends janis's legacy the contributors develop a richer understanding of group dynamics by drawing on alternate views of small-group dynamics the contributors develop a richer understanding of group dynamics by drawing on alternate views of small-group dynamics.
Janis' concept of groupthink janis' (1972) concept of groupthink sets out symptoms and characteristics that can occur within cohesive groupsthis behaviour can have significant negative influences on the decision making process within the group. 1 groupthink by irving janis (early draft) how could we have been so stupid president john f kennedy asked after he and a close group of advisors had blundered into the bay of pigs invasion.
Theory in view of its place within the field of group dynamics, the research work that followed janis's original formulation, and the implications of groupthink research for the crucial question on the conditions that foster high- or low-quality. Janis also made important contributions to the study of group dynamics he did extensive work in the area of groupthink , which describes the tendency of groups to try to minimize conflict and reach consensus without sufficiently testing, analyzing, and evaluating their ideas. Irving janis was a 20th century social psychologist who identified the phenomenon of groupthink professional life irving janis was born in buffalo, new york, in 1918 group dynamics.
Janis's groupthink theory is an appealing explanation of how group process can get in the way of optimal decision making unfortunately, janis was selective and not always consistent in his application of research in group dynamics. Group dynamics in janis's theory of groupthink: backward and forward organizational behavior & human decision processes, 73(2-3), 142-162 this paper traces groupthink to its theoretical roots in order to suggest how a broader and a more consistent use of research in group dynamics can advance understanding of decision-making problems. On the thirtieth anniversary of groupthink, schwartz and wald (2003) called janis a pioneer in the study of social dynamics (p 4) finally, given that government policy decisions will always exist, the likelihood of future instances of groupthink is rather high.
Groupthink is a concept that was identified by irving janis (a forefather in the study of group dynamics) [in 1972] that refers to faulty decision-making in a group groups experiencing groupthink do not consider all alternatives and they desire unanimity at the expense of quality decis. Groupthink, janis (1982) found numerous signs of defective de- cision making, including (a) truncated consideration of alterna- tives and objectives (often, the group discussed only the option. Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome.